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Important References


Ali, J.A., Jackson, A.P., Howells, A.J. and Maxwell, A. (1993). The 43 kDa N-terminal fragment of the gyrase B protein hydrolyses ATP and binds coumarin drugs.Biochemistry32, 2717-2724

Bates, A.D. and Maxwell, A. (2005). DNA Topology. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Boros, I., Pósfai, G. & Venetianer, P. (1984). High-copy number derivatives of the plasmid cloning vector pBR322. Gene30, 257-260

Ey, P.L., S.J., & Jenkin, C.R. (1978). Isolation of pure IgG1, IgG2a, and IgG2b immunoglobulins from mouse serum using Protein A sepharose. Immunochemisty15: 429-436

Hallett, P., Grimshaw, A.J., Wigley, D.B. and Maxwell, A. (1990). Cloning of the DNA gyrase genes under tac promoter control: overproduction of the gyrase A and B proteins.Gene93, 139-142

Harlow, E. & Lane, D (1988). Antibodies: a laboratory manual. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press. Cold Spring Harbor, NY. 

Maxwell, A. & Howells, A. J. (1999). Overexpression and purification of bacterial DNA gyrase, in DNA Topoisomerase Protocols Vol. I (Bjornsti, M-A. and Osheroff, N., eds.), Humana Press, Totowa, N. Jersey, 135-144

Peng, H. and Marians, K.J. (1999). Overexpression and purification of bacterial topoisomerase IV, in DNA Topoisomerase Protocols Vol. I (Bjornsti, M-A. and Osheroff, N. eds.), Humana Press, Totowa, N. Jersey, 163-169

Reece, R.J. and Maxwell, A. (1989). Tryptic fragments of the Escherichia coli DNA gyrase A protein. J. Biol. Chem264, 19648-19653.

Sambrook, J., Fritsch, E.F. & Maniatis, T (1989). Molecular cloning: a laboratory manual. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press. Cold Spring Harbor, NY.

Shapiro, T.A., Klein, V.A. and Englund, P.T. (1999). Isolation of kinetoplast DNA, in DNA Topoisomerase Protocols Vol. I (Bjornsti, M-A and Osheroff, N. eds.),  Humana Press, Totowa, N. Jersey, 61-68

Trask, D. K. & Muller, M. T. (1983). Biochemical characterization of topoisomerase I purified from avian erythrocytes. Nucleic Acids Res11, 2779-2800

Structure and mechanism

Bakshi, R.P., Galande, S. and Muniyappa, K. (2001).  Functional and regulatory characteristics of eukaryotic type II DNA topoisomerases. Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology36(1), 1-37.

Bellon, S., Parsons, J.D., Wei, Y., Hayakawa, K., Swenson, L.L., Charifson, P.S., Lippke, J.A., Aldape, R. and Gross, C.H. (2004). Crystal structures of Escherichia colitopoisomerase IV subunit (24 and 43 kilodaltons): a single residue dictates differences in novobiocin potency against toposimerase IV and DNA gyrase. Antimicrob. Agents and Chemother.48(5), 1856-1864.

Corbett, K.D. and Berger, J.M. (2004). Structure, molecular mechanisms, and evolutionary relationships in DNA topoisomerases. Ann. Rev. Biophys. Biomol. Struct.33, 95-118.

Dickey, J.S. and Osheroff, N. (2005). Impact of the C-terminal domain of topoisomerase IIα on the DNA cleavage activity of the human enzyme. Biochem.44(34), 11546-11554.

Gore, J., Bryant, Z., Stone M.D., Nollmann, M., Cozzarelli, N.R. and Bustamente, C. (2006). Mechanochemical analysis of DNA gyrase using rotor bead tracking. Nature439, 100-104.

Hsieh, T.-J., Farh, L., Huang, W.M. and Chan, N.-L. (2004). Structure of the topoisomerase IV C-terminal domain: a broken β-propeller implies a role in geometry facilitator in catalysis. J. Biol. Chem.279, 55587-55593.

Larsen, A.K., Escarguel, A.E. and Skladanowski, A. (2003). From DNA damage to G2 arrest: the many roles of topoisomerase II, in Progress in Cell Cycle Research (Meijer, L. Jezequel, A. and Roberge, M. eds.) 5, 295-300.

Wang, J.C. (2002). Cellular roles of DNA topoisomerases: a molecular perspective. Nat. Rev. Cell. Biol.3, 430-440.


Galm, U., Dessoy, M.A., Schmidt, J., Wessjohann, L.A. and Heide, L. (2004). In vitro andin vivo production of new aminocoumarins by a combined biochemical, genetic and synthetic approach. Chemistry and Biology11, 173-183.

Hegde, S.S., Vetting, M.W., Roderick, S.L., Mitchenall, L.A., Maxwell, A., Takiff, H.E. and Blanchard, J.S. (2005). A fluoroquinolone resistance protein from Mycobacterium tuberculosis that mimics DNA. Science308, 1480-1483.

Mitscher, L.A. (2005). Bacterial topoisomerase inhibitors: quinolone and pyridone antibacterial agents. Chem. Rev.105, 559-592.

Anticancer Agents

van Gijn, R., Lendfers, R.R.H., Schellens, J.H.M., Bult, A. and Beijnen, J.H. (2000). Dual topoisomerase I/II inhibitors. J. Oncology Pharmacy Practice6(3), 92.

Pommier, Y. (2006). Topoisomerase I inhibitors: camptothecins and beyond. Nature Reviews Cancer6, 789-802.

Roca, J., Ishidat, R., Berger, J.M., Andoht, T. and Wang, J.C. (1994). Anti-tumor bisdioxopiperazines inhibit yeast DNA topoisomerase II by trapping the enzyme in the form of a closed protein clamp. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci.91, 1781-1785.

List of publications

For the latest publications using Inspiralis products see Google Scholar

He, P., Katan, A. J., Tubiana, L., Dekker, C., & Michieletto, D. (2023). Single-Molecule Structure and Topology of Kinetoplast DNA NetworksPhysical Review X13(2), 1-13. Article 021010.

Ramakrishnan, S., Chen, Z., Gutierrez Fosado, Y. A., Tubiana, L., Vanderlinden, W., Savill, N. J., Schnaufer, A., & Michieletto, D. (2024). Single-molecule morphology of topologically digested olympic networks. PRX Life.

Aubry, A., Pan, X-S., Fisher, L.M., Jarlier, V. and Cambau, E. (2004). Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA Gyrase: Interaction with Quinolones and Correlation with Antimycobacterial Drug Activity. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.48(4), 1281- 1288. PubMed ID: 15047530

Flatman, R.H., Howells, A.J., Heide, L., Fiedler, H.-P. and Maxwell, A. (2005). Simocyclinone D8: an inhibitor of DNA gyrase with a novel mode of action. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.49, 1093-1100. PubMed: 15728908.

Galm, U., Heller, S., Shapiro, S., Malcolm Page, M., Shu-Ming Li, and Heide, L. (2004). Antimicrobial and DNA Gyrase-Inhibitory Activities of Novel Clorobiocin Derivatives Produced by Mutasynthesis. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 48(4),1307-1312. PubMed ID: 15047534

Gross C.H., Parsons J.D., Grossman T.H., Charifson P.S., Bellon S., Jernee J., Dwyer M., Chambers S.P., Markland W., Botfield M., Raybuck S.A. (2003). Active-site residues ofEscherichia coli DNA gyrase required in coupling ATP hydrolysis to DNA supercoiling and amino acid substitutions leading to novobiocin resistance. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother47(3), 1037- 1046. PubMed ID: 12604539

Gruger, T., Nitiss, J.L., Maxwell, A., Zechiedrich, E.L., Heisig, P., Seeber, S., Pommier, Y. and Strumberg, D. (2004). A mutation in Escherichia coli DNA gyrase conferring quinolone resistance results in sensitivity to drugs targeting eukaryotic topoisomerase II. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.48, 4495-4504. PubMed: 15561817

Heddle, J.G., Mitelheiser, S., Maxwell, A. and Thomson, N.H. (2004). Nucleotide binding to DNA gyrase causes loss of DNA wrap. J. Mol. Biol.337, 597-610. PubMed: 15019780

Li, K., Pasternak, C., Härtig, E., Haberzettl, K., Maxwell,A. and Klug, G (2004). Thioredoxin can influence gene expression by affecting gyrase activity. Nucleic Acids Res.32(15), 4563-4575. PubMed ID:15328368

Locher, H.H., Borer, Y., Gaertner, M., Schroeder, S., Specklin, J-L. and Hubschwerlen, C. (2002). Antibacterial Characterization and Mode of Action of New Oxazolidinone-Quinolone Hybrids. 42th ICAAC (2002), poster and abstract F-1317.

Macinga, D.R., Renick , P.J., Makin, K.M., Ellis, D.H., Kreiner, A.A., Min Li, Rupnik, K.J., Kincaid, E.M., Wallace, C.D., Ledoussal, B. and Morris, T.W. (2003). Unique Biological Properties and Molecular Mechanism of 5,6-Bridged Quinolones. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 47(8), 2526-2537. PubMed ID: 12878515

Morgan-Linell, S., K., Hiasa, H., Zechiedrich, L. and Nitiss, J., L. (2007). Assessing Sensitivity to Antibacterial Topoisomerase II Inhibitors. Current Protocols in Pharmacology. Supplement 39. 3.13.1-13.26

Oram, M. and Pato, M.L. (2004). Mu-Like Prophage Strong Gyrase Site Sequences: Analysis of Properties Required for Promoting Efficient Mu DNA Replication. J. Bact.186(14), 4575-4584. PubMed ID:15231790

Pacholec, M., Freel Meyers, C.L., Oberthu¨r, M., Kahne, D. and Walsh, C.T. (2005). Characterization of the Aminocoumarin Ligase SimL from the Simocyclinone Pathway and Tandem Incubation with NovM,P,N from the Novobiocin Pathway. Biochemistry44, 4949-4956. PubMed ID: 15779922

Reyes-Domínguez, Y., Contreras-Ferrat, G., Ramírez-Santos, J., Membrillo-Hernández, J. and Gómez-Eichelmann, M.C. (2003). Plasmid DNA Supercoiling and Gyrase Activity inEscherichia coli Wild-Type and rpoS Stationary-Phase Cells. J. Bact.185(3), 1097-1100. PubMed ID: 12533486

Rudolph J, Theis H, Hanke R, Endermann R, Johannsen L and Geschke F. (2001). seco-Cyclothialidines: new concise synthesis, inhibitory Gyrase activity toward bacterial and human DNA topoisomerases, and antibacterial properties. J. Med. Chem.44(4), 619-626. PubMed ID: 11170652

Strahilevitz, J. and Hooper, D.C. (2005). Dual Targeting of Topoisomerase IV and Gyrase To Reduce Mutant Selection: Direct Testing of the Paradigm by Using WCK-1734, a New Fluoroquinolone, and Ciprofloxacin. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 49(5), 1949-1956. PubMed ID: 15855518

Strumberg, D., Nitiss, J.L., Dong, J., Walker, J., Nicklaus, M.C., Kohn, K.W., Heddle, J.G., Maxwell, A., Seeber, S. and Pommier, Y. (2002). Importance of the fourth alpha-helix within the CAP homology domain of type II topoisomerase for DNA cleavage site recognition and quinolone action. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.46, 2735-2746. PubMed: 12183223.

Wall, M.K., Mitchenall, L.A. and Maxwell, A. (2004). Arabidopsis thaliana DNA gyrase is targeted to chloroplasts and mitochondria. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA101, 7821-7826. PubMed: 15136745

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