Ali, J.A., Jackson, A.P., Howells, A.J. and Maxwell, A. (1993). The 43 kDa N-terminal fragment of the gyrase B protein hydrolyses ATP and binds coumarin drugs.Biochemistry32, 2717-2724

Bates, A.D. and Maxwell, A. (2005). DNA Topology. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Boros, I., Pósfai, G. & Venetianer, P. (1984). High-copy number derivatives of the plasmid cloning vector pBR322. Gene30, 257-260

Ey, P.L., S.J., & Jenkin, C.R. (1978). Isolation of pure IgG1, IgG2a, and IgG2b immunoglobulins from mouse serum using Protein A sepharose. Immunochemisty15: 429-436

Hallett, P., Grimshaw, A.J., Wigley, D.B. and Maxwell, A. (1990). Cloning of the DNA gyrase genes under tac promoter control: overproduction of the gyrase A and B proteins.Gene93, 139-142

Harlow, E. & Lane, D (1988). Antibodies: a laboratory manual. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press. Cold Spring Harbor, NY. 

Maxwell, A. & Howells, A. J. (1999). Overexpression and purification of bacterial DNA gyrase, in DNA Topoisomerase Protocols Vol. I (Bjornsti, M-A. and Osheroff, N., eds.), Humana Press, Totowa, N. Jersey, 135-144

Peng, H. and Marians, K.J. (1999). Overexpression and purification of bacterial topoisomerase IV, in DNA Topoisomerase Protocols Vol. I (Bjornsti, M-A. and Osheroff, N. eds.), Humana Press, Totowa, N. Jersey, 163-169

Reece, R.J. and Maxwell, A. (1989). Tryptic fragments of the Escherichia coli DNA gyrase A protein. J. Biol. Chem264, 19648-19653.

Sambrook, J., Fritsch, E.F. & Maniatis, T (1989). Molecular cloning: a laboratory manual. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press. Cold Spring Harbor, NY.

Shapiro, T.A., Klein, V.A. and Englund, P.T. (1999). Isolation of kinetoplast DNA, in DNA Topoisomerase Protocols Vol. I (Bjornsti, M-A and Osheroff, N. eds.),  Humana Press, Totowa, N. Jersey, 61-68

Trask, D. K. & Muller, M. T. (1983). Biochemical characterization of topoisomerase I purified from avian erythrocytes. Nucleic Acids Res11, 2779-2800

Structure and mechanism

Bakshi, R.P., Galande, S. and Muniyappa, K. (2001).  Functional and regulatory characteristics of eukaryotic type II DNA topoisomerases. Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology36(1), 1-37.

Bellon, S., Parsons, J.D., Wei, Y., Hayakawa, K., Swenson, L.L., Charifson, P.S., Lippke, J.A., Aldape, R. and Gross, C.H. (2004). Crystal structures of Escherichia colitopoisomerase IV subunit (24 and 43 kilodaltons): a single residue dictates differences in novobiocin potency against toposimerase IV and DNA gyrase. Antimicrob. Agents and Chemother.48(5), 1856-1864.

Corbett, K.D. and Berger, J.M. (2004). Structure, molecular mechanisms, and evolutionary relationships in DNA topoisomerases. Ann. Rev. Biophys. Biomol. Struct.33, 95-118.

Dickey, J.S. and Osheroff, N. (2005). Impact of the C-terminal domain of topoisomerase IIα on the DNA cleavage activity of the human enzyme. Biochem.44(34), 11546-11554.

Gore, J., Bryant, Z., Stone M.D., Nollmann, M., Cozzarelli, N.R. and Bustamente, C. (2006). Mechanochemical analysis of DNA gyrase using rotor bead tracking. Nature439, 100-104.

Hsieh, T.-J., Farh, L., Huang, W.M. and Chan, N.-L. (2004). Structure of the topoisomerase IV C-terminal domain: a broken β-propeller implies a role in geometry facilitator in catalysis. J. Biol. Chem.279, 55587-55593.

Larsen, A.K., Escarguel, A.E. and Skladanowski, A. (2003). From DNA damage to G2 arrest: the many roles of topoisomerase II, in Progress in Cell Cycle Research (Meijer, L. Jezequel, A. and Roberge, M. eds.) 5, 295-300.

Wang, J.C. (2002). Cellular roles of DNA topoisomerases: a molecular perspective. Nat. Rev. Cell. Biol.3, 430-440.


Galm, U., Dessoy, M.A., Schmidt, J., Wessjohann, L.A. and Heide, L. (2004). In vitro andin vivo production of new aminocoumarins by a combined biochemical, genetic and synthetic approach. Chemistry and Biology11, 173-183.

Hegde, S.S., Vetting, M.W., Roderick, S.L., Mitchenall, L.A., Maxwell, A., Takiff, H.E. and Blanchard, J.S. (2005). A fluoroquinolone resistance protein from Mycobacterium tuberculosis that mimics DNA. Science308, 1480-1483.

Mitscher, L.A. (2005). Bacterial topoisomerase inhibitors: quinolone and pyridone antibacterial agents. Chem. Rev.105, 559-592.

Anticancer Agents

van Gijn, R., Lendfers, R.R.H., Schellens, J.H.M., Bult, A. and Beijnen, J.H. (2000). Dual topoisomerase I/II inhibitors. J. Oncology Pharmacy Practice6(3), 92.

Pommier, Y. (2006). Topoisomerase I inhibitors: camptothecins and beyond. Nature Reviews Cancer6, 789-802.

Roca, J., Ishidat, R., Berger, J.M., Andoht, T. and Wang, J.C. (1994). Anti-tumor bisdioxopiperazines inhibit yeast DNA topoisomerase II by trapping the enzyme in the form of a closed protein clamp. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci.91, 1781-1785.